Category Archives: subject_intro

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Using weather forecasts

What is ‘weather’ and does it differ to ‘climate’?

“Sunshine is delicious,
rain is refreshing,
wind braces us up,
snow is exhilarating;
there is really no such thing as bad weather,
only different kinds of good weather.” John Ruskin

Weather forecasts are a handy tool for predicting future weather conditions and packing appropriate gear on a bushwalk. Knowing in advance if the trip will be particularly cool, hot, wet or dry means you can tweak your gear to best meet your needs.

In Australia, we are a land of extremes, from snow-capped peaks to arid desert conditions. Bushfire awareness is a key part of weather forecasting for us, as well as knowing when to pack warm clothes for Alpine conditions.

Of course, no weather forecast will ever be 100% reliable, but as technology improves, experts are better than ever before at predicting conditions. And technology like weather radars, maps and satellite images mean that you can get a fairly good idea into what to expect. Long-term datasets also enable walkers to select walks based on typical seasonal weather patterns so you can avoid (if you wish) camping out in the rainiest months of the year! As a general rule shorter term forecasts are more reliable than longer term forecasts. Forecast for the next 24hrs from a reputable source (such as BOM or NOAA) tend to be very reliable.

Dive into this topic by first learning more about weather and then how to check conditions before and during a bushwalk.

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Bites and stings

How to manage unexpected wildlife interactions

Don't let the same dog bite you twice. Chuck Berry

The terms ‘bite’ and ‘sting’ refer to when an animal or plant breaks the skin surface, potentially transferring germs or venom that can result in anything from a minor irritation to a severe medical condition.

We generally use the word ‘bite’ when it occurs with teeth (e.g. a dog bite), and sting when it occurs with another part of the body (e.g. a bee stings with a barbed stinger; a plant stings with tiny hairs on its leaves).

In the case of insect bites and stings, while both hurt, the difference in the two terms refers to whether any toxic venom is transferred. An insect bite occurs when the insect pierces the skin. Often the insect injects anticoagulant saliva so they can feed on your blood. By contrast, an insect sting is when the animal transfers toxic venom into your system, often as a defence mechanism.

While both can result in a pain, itchiness, or even an allergic reaction for some people, the causes are quite different. For an insect bite, our bodies are responding to the potential infection by the breakdown of the skin barrier and potential transfer of infectious agents from the insect (e.g. malaria transferred to humans via mosquito bites). For an insect sting, your body in addition to potential infection is dealing with a foreign toxic substance, that may have severe medical consequences. The same is true for spiders, although they are not if fact insects – a general misconception for many of us!

In the case of snakes, however, the term ‘bite’ can refer to both venomous and non-venomous attacks, however, for practical purposes all snakes bites are treated as venomous until proven otherwise.

And in the plant kingdom, ‘stinging’ plants have tiny needles that break off and lodge into the skin, causing extreme discomfort.

Having said all this, the chance of being bitten by a snake or spider on a bushwalk is relatively low. In Australia there are about 3,000 snake bites per year, of which 200 to 500 receive antivenom; on average one or two will prove fatal. By contrast, spider-related deaths are almost unheard of:although approximately 2000 people are bitten each year by Redback Spiders, there has only been 1 spider-related death since antivenoms for funnel web and redback spiders were developed in 1980s.

To put this in perspective, there were 1290 road crash deaths and fatal road crashes in Australia during only 2016 And in 2015, there were 45,392 deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease in Australia.

While fatal outcomes of bites and stings by Australian wildlife is unlikely, nevertheless, it’s worth having the knowledge and skill set to deal with unexpected situations in the bush because emergency medical help is often delayed.

Although the likelihood of getting bitten, stung or scratched by an animal on a bushwalk by an animal that will envenomate (or similar) is fairly low, there are some simple things that you can do to reduce that risk further. The information here is based on current guidelines from the NSW Health Direct website.

Some general advice for avoiding wildlife bites, scratches and stings, and good for mozzies too!

  • Wear long sleeved shirts and pants and closed-top shoes to cover up your skin and reduce the risk of bites.
  • Follow the Leave No Trace principles and leave wild animals be. Do not touch, corner or startle a wild animals, especially for the sake of a photo.
  • If you notice a wild animal, warn others in the group. If you can, wait for it to move off on it’s own accord or make a wide berth around the animal.
  • Insect repellant is great for preventing insect and leech bites.

DEET is an extremely effective way of avoiding insect bites including mosquito bites, and is particularly important in areas with known mosquito-borne diseases. The DEET (Diethytoluamide) chemical conceals us to insects by stopping the detection Carbon Dioxide, which we emit from our skin, a stimuli for blood feeding [1].

The Department of Medical Entomology at the University of Sydney & Westmead Hospital released the following guidelines for using repellants:

  • DEET repellants = recommended, but in different strengths depending on situation.
  • Plant-based repellents = good, but need to be reapplied regularly.
  • Wrist-band and patch repellents = ineffective.

Always check the label before applying insect repellent for instructions on how to apply and how often to reapply, and test it first on a small patch of skin before applying fully.

MORE INFORMATION
Health direct is a government-funded service, providing quality, approved health information:
https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/bites-and-stings

Free app on to help identify and deal with bites and stings: http://www.seqirus.com.au/bites-app

Resources at the Australian Museum website (e.g. spider bites and venoms)

SPECIAL THANKS TO THE FOLLOWING EXPERTS FOR REVIEWING AND CONTRIBUTING MATERIAL TO THIS ARTICLE:

JOHN TURNBULL
Author of Marine Explorer and Ex-President of National Parks Association of NSW.

MARGOT LAW
Citizen Science Officer
National Parks Association of NSW

Ticks:
HENRY LYDECKER | PhD Candidate
School of Life and Environmental Sciences | Faculty of Science
The University of Sydney

Spiders:
FRAN VAN DEN BERG
Citizen Science Officer
National Parks Association of NSW

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Personal Locator Beacons

What they are and why to carry them

The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today. H. Jackson Brown, Jr.

Personal locator beacons (PLBs) are devices that transmit your location via satellite to emergency services. They are used in life-threatening situations to signal that emergency help is required (e.g. group is lost, someone is injured or very unwell), and usually only activate when other forms of two-way communication such as a phone call cannot be made (e.g. group is out of mobile phone reception). PLBs are an important safety backup for groups traveling through areas with poor or no mobile phone reception, and have been proven time and time again to be a life-saving device for bushwalkers.

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Welcome

Getting ready for your first walk

It’s great to have you join us on your first bushwalk. Here we’ll run through just a few things to help you with packing, preparing and choosing your first walk. Happy walking!

Packing What gear do I need?

 What clothing to wear?

Practical and comfortable clothing is key. Go for light, loose clothing: this helps you stay cool and comfortable. Avoid tight fitting clothes and/or jeans. We recommend:

  • Collared shirt (sun protection)
  • Long, loose shorts
  • Sunhat, glasses and sunscreen  (sun protection)

Check the local weather forecast to gauge how hot/cold it’ll be on the walk and tweak your gear to include extra layers if it’s cooler, and more drinking water if it’s going to be hot.

What shoes to wear?

Again, comfort is the key here. Start with a pair of sports shoes that you’re comfortable in and your feet are used to. For your first walk we recommend:

  • a pair of light and comfortable runners
  • ankle length socks

What to pack

Don’t rush off to expensive camping stores to buy fancy gear for your first trip – you’ll probably find that you’ve got everything you need sitting at home. Find a small, light backpack to carry:

  1. Water2 Litres is usually enough, split between a few old soft drink bottles.
  1. Food: Morning tea, afternoon tea and lunch. Carry food that doesn’t need preparing and snacks that are easy to eat on the move.  e.g. sandwiches, fruit, nuts, muesli bars & lollies/chocolate to boost energy levels. Pack a few extra snacks in case you get back later than planned.
  1. Personal medication (e.g. asthma inhalers) – your trip leader will have a first aid kit.
  1. Everything else for Grade 1-2 on our complete gear checklist.

Lastly, if you’re worried about gear getting wet, just double wrap it in garbage bags.

Choosing your first walk What makes for a good first walk?


The nature of the walk
Everyone walks for different reasons, and every leader leads their own walks a bit differently. Some leaders prefer fast-paced walks, others like leisurely strolls with plenty of time for lunch breaks and photos. Some like to name every plant, and others like to enjoy broad vistas.
Spend a few minutes thinking about why you want to go bushwalking. Then flick through the program and get a sense for the types of trips that our leaders run. If you can find a leader that leads walks in a way that suit the reason you want to walk, then you will find it more enjoyable.

Grade
Walks are graded from 1 to 6 where 1 is the easiest and 6 is the hardest. If you’re new to bushwalking, it’s a good idea to choose an easy walk (grade 1-2) to start with to help settle in. If you’re relatively fit and have done some walking in the past then you might feel okay tackling a grade 3 on your first trip. More about walk grades.

Day before the trip
On the day before your trip make sure you hydrate well by drink plenty of water and get a good night of sleep.  Double check the weather forecast and for any disruptions to your travel arrangements (e.g. rail track work).

Things changed & you can’t make the walk anymore?
We know that life gets crazy at times. Please just let your leader know if you can’t make the walk anymore.

On the day Get the most out of your walk

On the morning of your walk
On the morning of the trip, here are a few tips to help you feel great and start your walk smoothly:

  • Enjoy a good breakfast, and double check your gear and walk details.
  • Aim to be at the meeting point and ready to start walking 10 minutes before the actual starting time.
  • Go to the toilet before arriving – many meeting points don’t have a toilet.

On your walk
On the walk, have fun and enjoy yourself, but just keep a few things in mind:

  • Stick with the group, and if you’re finding it hard to keep up then chat to your leader.
  • Leave nothing in the bush, no rubbish not even orange peel.
  • Be mindful of other people on the track: give other groups plenty of room to pass

After your walk
At the end of the walk, remember to say thanks to your leader – they are volunteers and put in a stack of effort to organise the logistics of getting bushwalkers out into the bush. If someone has given you a lift, then it’s nice to offer them some petrol money or shout them a coffee instead.

You may also want to exchange contact details with a few people you met on the trip. You may find some people that live close by and can share transport to the start of walks.

Getting into it Enjoying a life long love of walking

What worked for you?
When you get back home from any activity, have a think through what parts of the trip you enjoyed most. Was is the walking pace, views, coffee, people or other things? Then search to find your next adventure!

Frequently asked Questions

  • Are there toilets?
    Walks start from many different meeting places, some with toilets, but many without. So make sure you go, before you go!
  • Do I really need to bring lunch?
    Yes, always carry lunch with you. Even on short day walks it’s a good idea to carry lunch or at least a substantial snack. This gives a buffer in case the trip takes longer than expected, or you end up enjoying yourself so much out there that you stay for a bit longer!
  • I am an experienced bushwalker, can I do a grade 5 for my first walk?
    We always recommend that you start with an easier grade walk on your first walk. This gives you a chance to get used to the group and find your feet. For most people, start with a grade 1-2, for those with some previous bushwalking experience and good general fitness a grade 3-4 may be more appropriate.

Meals and cooking

Meals and cooking in the bush

“There is no sincerer love than the love of food” George Bernard Shaw

Food tastes extra good on a bushwalk. You can keep it simple or be extravagant but whatever you do you can keep it nutritious and delicious. Having the right types of food with you, not only keeps moral going strong during the walk, but also gives your body enough fuel to not only just to survive out there, but thrive!

Great foods for bushwalking are those that are nutritious and easy to carry. On short walks, you can get away with taking heavier, more gourmet foods, but on extended walks, lightweight foods are key.

Everyone has different tastes and preferences when it comes to food, and we’re certainly not going to tell you what you have to eat. Instead, we’ll run through some basic guidelines for nutritional and food attributes to help you decide what to pack for a bushwalk, as well as some examples of menus to help you get some ideas for what’s right for you. If you want to skip to some sample overnight bushwalk menus go here .

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Getting started

Getting ready for your first few walks

I am excited that you are here and keen to learn more about how to bushwalk. Learn 2 bushwalk is not simply a survival guide. We don’t go on bushwalks to merely survive, we head out to have fun, explore and thrive. I trust that you will find this a very practical guide that steps you through all you need to know to thrive in the wild.

Packing What gear do I need?

 What clothing to wear?

Practical and comfortable clothing is key. Go for light, loose clothing: this helps you stay cool and comfortable. Avoid tight fitting clothes and/or jeans. We recommend:

  • Collared shirt (sun protection)
  • Long, loose shorts
  • Sunhat, glasses and sunscreen  (sun protection)

Check the local weather forecast to gauge how hot/cold it’ll be on the walk and tweak your gear to include extra layers if it’s cooler, and more drinking water if it’s going to be hot.

What shoes to wear?

Again, comfort is the key here. Start with a pair of sports shoes that you’re comfortable in and your feet are used to. For your first walk we recommend:

  • a pair of light and comfortable runners
  • ankle length socks

What to pack

Don’t rush off to expensive camping stores to buy fancy gear for your first trip – you’ll probably find that you’ve got everything you need sitting at home. Find a small, light backpack to carry:

  1. Water2 Litres is usually enough, split between a few old soft drink bottles.
  1. Food: Morning tea, afternoon tea and lunch. Carry food that doesn’t need preparing and snacks that are easy to eat on the move.  e.g. sandwiches, fruit, nuts, muesli bars & lollies/chocolate to boost energy levels. Pack a few extra snacks in case you get back later than planned.
  1. Personal medication (e.g. asthma inhalers) – your trip leader will have a first aid kit.
  1. Everything else for Grade 1-2 on our complete gear checklist.

Lastly, if you’re worried about gear getting wet, just double wrap it in garbage bags.

Choosing your first walk What makes for a good first walk?

Where to find out about our walks
There are many great sources of walking experainces out there.
NSW: Wildwalks — yeah I know I am biased 🙂
Australia: Bushwalk Australia — A forum of expearinaced bushwalkers.

Transport
Think about transport. Loop and return walks start and end at the same point, that can make driving easier. Consider walks where you use public transport, this is especially handy for one-way walks where you can use a bus, train or ferry to get back home again.

The nature of the walk
Everyone walks for different reasons, and everyone leads their own walks a bit differently. Some people prefer fast-paced walks, others like leisurely strolls with plenty of time for lunch breaks and photos. Some like to name every plant, and others like to enjoy broad vistas.
Spend a few minutes thinking about why you want to go bushwalking. Chat with your walking buddies about why they are coming and make sure you all have a reasonable expectation of how the walk is going to go. It can be really frustrating for someone who is expecting a walk to improve fitness to discover the trip is slow paced with lots of coffee stops — a quick conversation can fix this.

Grade
Walks are graded from 1 to 6 where 1 is the easiest and 6 is the hardest. If you’re new to bushwalking, it’s a good idea to choose an easy walk (grade 2-3) to start with to help settle in. If you’re relatively fit and have done some walking in the past then you might feel okay tackling a grade 3 on your first trip. More about walk grades.

Day before the trip
On the day before your trip make sure you hydrate well by drink plenty of water and get a good night of sleep.  Double check the weather forecast and for any disruptions to your travel arrangements (e.g. rail track work).

Things changed & you can’t make the walk anymore?
We know that life gets crazy at times. Please just let your leader know if you can’t make the walk anymore.

On the day Get the most out of your walk

On the morning of your walk
On the morning of the trip, here are a few tips to help you feel great and start your walk smoothly:

  • Enjoy a good breakfast, and double check your gear and walk details.
  • Aim to be at the meeting point and ready to start walking 10 minutes before the actual starting time.
  • Go to the toilet before arriving – many meeting points don’t have a toilet.

On your walk
On the walk, have fun and enjoy yourself, but just keep a few things in mind:

  • Stick with the group, and if you’re finding it hard to keep up then chat to your leader.
  • Leave nothing in the bush, no rubbish not even orange peel.
  • Be mindful of other people on the track: give other groups plenty of room to pass

After your walk
At the end of the walk, remember to say thanks to your leader – they are volunteers and put in a stack of effort to organise the logistics of getting people out into the bush. If someone has given you a lift, then it’s nice to offer them some petrol money or shout them a coffee instead.

You may also want to exchange contact details with a few people you met on the trip. You may find some people that live close by and can share transport to the start of walks.

Getting into it Enjoying a life long love of walking

What worked for you?
When you get back home from any activity, have a think through what parts of the trip you enjoyed most. Was is the walking pace, views, coffee, people or other things? Then flick through the activities program to find your next adventure!

Frequently asked Questions

  • Are there toilets?
    Walks start from many different meeting places, some with toilets, but many without. So make sure you go, before you go!
  • Do I really need to bring lunch?
    Yes, always carry lunch with you. Even on short day walks it’s a good idea to carry lunch or at least a substantial snack. This gives a buffer in case the trip takes longer than expected, or you end up enjoying yourself so much out there that you stay for a bit longer!
  • I am an experienced bushwalker, can I do a grade 5 for my first walk?
    We always recommend that you start with an easier grade walk on your first walk. This gives you a chance to get used to the group and find your feet. For most people, start with a grade 1-2, for those with some previous bushwalking experience and good general fitness a grade 3-4 may be more appropriate.
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Gear for Day Walks

Suggestions for things to pack and wear on a day walk

Gear for day walks varies on the length and grade of the walk as well as weather conditions and how remote the track is.

Walks become more remote the further they are from roads and mobile reception. In remote areas and on longer/harder walks carry more emergency supplies and stuff to help cope with the unexpected. On short, easy walks, just carry the basics.

Day-walks can be split into three types:

  • Well marked tracks, not too steep or long: Grade 1-2.
  • Longer tracks, steeper sections, but still on well-defined tracks: Grade 3 walks.
  • Longer, remote walks, with steep difficult sections. Can be part or all off-track: Grade 4-6 walks.

For Grade 1-2 walks carry basic gear including any personal medication. For grade 3 walks, carry a more comprehensive kit to cope with changing conditions. For grade 4-6 walks, pack a full gear kit.

The group can share certain items (e.g. first aid kit), although on longer, harder walks, it’s best for everyone to carry at least some items to help cope with the unexpected (e.g. whistle, space blanket, backup food).

Carry a PLB on walks that go outside mobile phone reception regardless of the grade or length.

Download the Day Walk Gear Checklist.

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Leave No Trace

Enjoying natural areas and leaving them in pristine condition

The best and most beautiful things in the world
cannot be seen or even touched -
they must be felt with the heart. Helen Keller

There are many different reasons why people head into natural areas to go bushwalking. Maybe to escape the hustle and bustle of everyday city life, maybe to clear the mind, maybe to get fresh air and exercise, or simply appreciate the beauty of nature. Whatever the reasons for heading into the bush, going there brings a unique connection to it, and nothing is more heartbreaking than seeing natural areas trashed by current and previous visitors.

Natural areas in Australia are important habitat for native wildlife including vulnerable and endangered wildlife. Having negligible impacts on natural areas is more than just carrying out rubbish. It extends to how much noise the group makes – maybe yelling at someone at the front of the group scared away a bird from its nest and young?- or even the smallest disturbance to rocks – perhaps that forced an insect out into an area where it is unprotected from predators.

Visitors to natural areas have a responsibility to help protect these areas from any degradation by following basic minimal impact bushwalking principles. Leave No Trace Australia is an organisation dedicated to inspiring and promoting responsible use of the outdoors through research, partnerships and education. It’s a national non-profit group that runs workshops and courses on the subject of minimal impact bushwalking.

The Leave No Trace guidelines describe best practice for visiting natural areas. They consists of seven principles:

  1. Plan ahead and prepare
  2. Travel on durable surfaces
  3. Dispose of waste properly
  4. Leave what you find
  5. Minimize campfire impacts
  6. Respect wildlife
  7. Consider hosts and other visitors

Check out this interactive website for tips on keeping natural places wild.

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Footwear

Everything you need to know about bushwalking shoes

Follow your feet. Unknown

Suitable footwear is crucial for an enjoyable bushwalk, and nowadays there’s a vast array of footwear options to choose from. Bushwalkers can be seen using anything from runners through to medium-weight boots depending on temperature conditions and terrain, but each shoe type has trade-offs around comfort, protection, and weight to name a few. Views vary, from walkers being very keen on their type or brand, to accepting anything that fits their general requirements. More experienced walkers may have a range of footwear, and select the pair best suited for the trip. It’s important that all footwear is well fitted and kept in good condition before, during and after walks.

Maintenance and Repairs

Written by Eva

How to look after your footwear [aesop_quote type="block" background="#ffffff" text="#000000" align="center" size="1" quote="Shoe repairs: I will heel you; I will save your sole; I will even dye for you." cite="Unknown; Shoe repair shop" parallax="off" direction="left"] [aesop_content color="#000000" background="#ffffff" columns="1" position="none" imgrepeat="no-repeat" floaterposition="left" floaterdirection="up"]Regular maintenance of bushwalking footwear keeps them in good condition for longer, allowing them to be used on more trips. Unfortunately, like most bushwalking gear, boots or shoes are also subject to a fair bit of wear and tear out on a bushwalk from weather conditions, terrain and vegetation. Walkers that take good care of their footwear with some basic maintenance checks and repairs before, during and after the walk, can use them more reliably and for longer. Before the walk Here are some general maintenance footwear checks to do before heading into the bush. Overall Condition Check for cracks or rips; loose soles or insoles; stitching. Laces Replace any frayed or worn laces. Eyelets/D-rings Check if loose or cracked. Breaking boots in Leather shoes need considerable time for the leather to mould to the foot. Waterproofing If needed, use the appropriate product to waterproof the boot or shoe fabric. For synthetic materials, it’s usually a silicone-based product, and for leather it’s oil-based. During the walk Remove any debris or dirt picked up along the way (both exterior and internal). Make any short-term field repairs as necessary such as replacing broken laces. On multi-day trips, dry footwear out overnight. Be wary of drying out footwear close to a campfire or heater: footwear materials easily melt with direct heat and leather boots also crack in direct sunlight. Also, be wary of leaving boots outside in cold conditions as they can freeze and crack. The following morning, shake out boots before putting them on in case anything has crawled in overnight. Back home: Give footwear an initial clean using a brush to remove dirt, then add running water and mild soap (check manufacturer’s recommendations). Clean the inside of the boot to remove mud and sweat. Thoroughly dry out footwear, but not in direct heat or sunlight. Re-waterproof boots if necessary. Leather boots need to have a leather conditioner regularly applied to stop the boots drying out. Perform a general maintenance and make any repairs in time for the next bushwalking trip. Store in a cool, dry place. Avoid humid areas. Also, don’t put them in a plastic bag as this prevents footwear from airing. Take the boots off before storing them. [/aesop_content] [aesop_chapter title="Biosecurity" subtitle="How to walk without spreading harmful biological materials" bgtype="img" full="on" img="/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/AdobeStock_38088423_Hands-of-elderly-man-and-baby-holding-a-plant_1500.jpg"] [aesop_content color="#000000" background="#ffffff" columns="1" position="none" imgrepeat="no-repeat" floaterposition="left" floaterdirection="up"]Pathogens are anything that causes a disease, and can have devastating effects on native wildlife. Infected populations often suffer excessive losses due to lack of immunity, and are swamped by other species, both exotic and native. In extreme cases, disease can lead to the local extinction of a species. Pathogens can disperse by a few methods including water and wind, but also by using a carrier, that is, by attaching seeds or spores to living creatures. Hitching a free ride can be a highly effective way of dispersing, and invasive species spreading this way can have dramatic consequences for the local ecosystem and ecology. Once a weed is established, it is extremely challenging to remove it: better to stop weeds entering native areas in the first place. Phytophthora, a soil-borne water mould, has had devastating effects on plant communities in the Sydney region. Spread via water, soil and human activity, it has effectively dispersed into many native vegetation patches around Sydney, and local management authorities and community groups are working hard to combat the spread. Bushwalkers are perfect carriers not only for pathogen spread but invasive weeds too because they often go between urban and predominantly native areas, and generally travel considerable distances. National park trail heads quite often have cleaning stations where visitors are asked to clean their boots to ensure they don’t bring anything into the park. Being particularly good at spreading weeds and pathogens, it’s vital that bushwalkers do as much as possible to prevent it. Set good examples to the group and other bushwalkers. Here are some tips to prevent the spread of pathogens and seeds. Check park guidelines: some areas have specific problems and management strategies that all park visitors must follow. Make sure that clothes and footwear are clean of all organic matter including mud, seeds, spores and burrs before heading into the bush. Check upon return too. Never discard fruit and vegetable in the bush: they can germinate into non-native plants. Also, take care when eating not to drop any material or leave food behind at lunch and rest stops. If walking through farmland or areas with lots of weedy species, avoid wearing materials on the lower half that make it easy for seeds and spores to stick to. Cobbler's pegs (Bidens pilosa) is a nightmare weed in Australia, with numerous peg-like seeds sticking easily to woolly socks and thermal materials. If seeds are caught on gear or clothing, remove seeds, place in a plastic bag and carry them out. It’s helpful to know some basic botany: get to know some common weed species. Join a local bushcare community group or community action day to look after local areas. [/aesop_content]
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Foot Care

Looking after your bushwalking feet

Be sure you put your feet in the right place,
then stand firm. Abraham Lincoln

Feet take a lot of wear and tear in day to day life and even more so on a bushwalk: the whole weight of the body is supported by feet as well as the additional weight of the pack. It’s easy to forget to look after your feet, but it’s important to carry out regular maintenance and checks to keep them in the best possible condition.